Detective Work
Lesson 54beginner Turkish Beginner
Detective Work
Today, we're investigating the -en subject participle. It's elementary my dear Watson.
The subject participle (en).
Hover over words to see their translations and suffixes.
Barda bar + da
at the bar
o gün o gün
that day
kim kim
vardı? var + dı
was there?
Hatırlaman hatırlama + ın
your remembering
gerekli. gerekli.
Katil Katil
de de
o gece o gece
that night
bardaydı bar + da + y + dı
he was at the bar
çünkü. çünkü.
Translate |
Who was at the bar that day? You need to remember, because the murderer was also at the bar that night.
Tamam, Tamam,
düşünüyorum. düşün + üyor + um
I am thinking
Barda bar + da
at the bar
benimle benim + le
with me
beraber beraber
iki kişi iki kişi
two people
oturuyordu. otur + uyor + du
they were sitting
Yanımda yan + ım + da
to my side
oturan otur + an
who was sitting
adam adam
çok çok
sinirliydi. sinir + li + di
he was angry
Translate |
Okay, I'm thinking. There were two people sitting together with me at the bar. The man sitting by my side was very angry.
Çok Çok
ilginç. . . ilginç. . .
barda bar + da
at the bar
oturan otur + an
who was sitting
öteki öteki
adam adam
peki? peki?
ne ne
yapıyordu? yap + ıyor + du
he was doing
Translate |
Very intereting. . . and the other man sitting at the bar? What was he doing?
Dikkat çeken dikkat çek + en
that stood out
birşey birşey
yapmadı. yap + ma + dı
he did not do
Ama Ama
arka arka
masada masa + da
at the table
içkiyi içki + y + i
alcoholic drink
fazla fazla
a lot
içenler iç + en + ler
those that were drinking
vardı. var + dı
there were
Translate |
He didn't do anything that stood out. But there were some people drinking a lot at the table in the back.
İçenlerin arasında iç + en + ler + in ara + s + ı + n + da
amongst those drinking
kırmızı kırmızı
elbise elbise
giyen giy + en
who was wearing
bir kadın bir kadın
a woman
var mıydı? var mı + y + dı
was there?
Translate |
Was there a woman wearing a red dress amongst those drinking?
Hayır, Hayır,
öyle öyle
like that
birini biri + n + i
görmedim. gör + me + dim
I didn't see
Translate |
No, I didn't see someone like that.
Çok Çok
garip, garip,
çünkü çünkü
güvenlik kamerasında güvenlik kamera + s + ı + n + da
on the security camera
onunla onun + la
with her
beraber beraber
görünüyorsun. görün + üyor + sun
you seem
Translate |
That's very strange, because you appear to be together with her on the security camera.
Allahın belası Allahın belası
polisler! polis + ler
Sevdiğim sev + dik + im
who I love
kadını kadın + ı
size siz + e
to you
vermeyeceğim. ver + me + y + ecek + im
I will not give
Sevenler sev + en + ler
those that love
asla asla
vazgeçmez. vazgeç + mez
one doesn't abandon
Translate |
Blasted police! I won't give you the woman I love. Lovers never give up.
Play Dialog
The -en Subject Participle

Earlier, this week, we published a lesson on the -dik object participle and discussed the difference between the two. Check that out for a more detailed discussion on what participles are and how they act in Turkish. In a nutshell, a participle is an adjective made from a verb and Turkish participles fall into two broad categories: the object participle and the subject participle. Today, we're talking about the subject participle - an adjective made from a verb that modifies the subject of a clause.

The suffix -en makes the subject participle in Turkish. It follows e-type vowel harmony and is added directly to the verb stem. When adding -en to a verb stem that ends in a vowel, add a buffer y. Notice that (unlike -dik participles), -en participles don't contain any information about the person, since the word it is modifying provides the context. Finally, -en can be used to convey the past or present tense (a different suffix is used for the future subject participle).

When translating -en participles into English, we usually need to use a who or that clause: the man who is running, the doctor who is working, etc. Here are some examples to get you started:

Koşan adam.
The man who is running.
İçki içen kızlar arka masada oturuyorlar.
The girls who are drinking alcohol are sitting at the back table.
Uyuyan köpek.
The dog that is sleeping.
Beni seven kedi.
The cat that loves me.
İngilizce bilen bayan aranıyor.
A woman who knows English is wanted. (seen on a job post)

Practice this language point.

-en Participles as Nouns

Just like all adjectives in Turkish, -en participles can act as nouns if the noun they are modifying is implied. Therefore, don't be surprised to see the usual noun suffixes attached to these participles.

The ones that are running.
Orada çalışanları gördük.
We saw the people working over there.
Dans edemeyenin adı Fırat.
The name of the one who can't dance is Fırat.
Kırmızı elbise giyenden korkuyor.
He is afraid of the one wearing the red dress.
Comparing -en and -dik

It's hard to explain the difference between -en and -dik without getting very technical. But we'll try. Use -en when the word you are modifying is doing the action; in the man who is running (koşan adam), the man is the one running. The man is the subject of the clause who is running

Use -dik when the word you are modifying is being acted on by someone else or something else; in the man who I ran into (rastladığım adam), the man is being run into by me. The man is the object of the clause - that is, the one receiving the action done by me.

Beni seven kadın.
The woman who loves me.
Sevdiğim kadın.
The woman whom I love.
Mektup yazan adam.
The man writing the letter.
Adamın yazdığı mektup.
The letter that the man wrote.

Practice this language point.

Which of the following is a correct -en construction?
  • koşun adam
  • koşan adam
  • uyuyen adam
  • uyuyun adam
Which of the following makes a participle out of the clause "kadın kırmızı elbise giyiyor."
  • kırmızı elbise giyen kadın
  • giyen kadın kırmızı elbise
  • kadın kırmızı elbise giyen
  • kırmızı elbise giydiği elbise
Which of the following are correct -en constructions?
  • içen
  • söylen
  • çalışen
  • giten
  • gülen
  • söyleyen
Translate: the teacher who is speaking (konuşmak).
    Translate: a man who is drinking beer.
      You must answer every question.
      Thank you sooooooo much my brothers for those Turkish lessons.I have really loved learning Turkish language with you...god blessed you.Bye
      May 10, 2013
      Hey Justin, I just wanted to let you know that on the dialog the translation for görünüyorsun pops up as "you seem" but I think it's supposed to be you saw or something along those lines??
      Thanks! Love this website!
      May 11, 2013
      Gorunmek can also been "he is seeming" in the sense that "he is appearing, displaying (showing)" to be something.

      For example... "korkmus gorunuyorsun" You are looking scared.
      I think so!
      May 13, 2013
      Whoops - sorry I missed this! Yes, the above post is right on.

      Görünmek is the reflexive form of görmek (with that reflexive suffix -in). Often, when Turkish verbs take their passive or reflexive or causative (or whatever) forms, they take a bit of a life of their own. So, even though görünmek very literally means something like "to see yourself," it usually means something close to "it seems" in actual usage.

      Hope that helps :)
      May 13, 2013
      Please fix the 'speaking' for all lessons please
      Sep 13, 2013
      Merhaba Turkish Tea Time Team,

      Can you please let me know why giten is not correct construction of "en" in Q-3. Teşekkürler
      Dec 20, 2013
      Consonant mutation! Gitmek turns into giden.
      Dec 20, 2013
      Teşekkür ederim.
      Dec 21, 2013
      Why is it

      Dans edeyenin adı Fırat.

      And not

      Dans edenin adı Fırat.

      I cannot get my head around the y.
      Feb 09, 2014
      You are now officially part of the Turkish Tea Time family, finding our typos and helping us fix them. Sorry about that.

      "Dans edenin adı Fırat" is correct. I believe what we wanted to write was "Dans edemeyenin adı Fırat" = the name of the one who can't dance is Fırat. But you probably understand the buffer y just fine. If the verb stem ends in a vowel, add a y before -en. The stem of "etmek" doesn't, so there's no y. Our fault.
      Feb 09, 2014
      Oh my word! I need a lie down!
      Correct twice.
      You say the nicest things.

      Just proves you are all worth every penny.
      Feb 09, 2014
      tesekkurler bu ders için!
      Feb 13, 2014
      A marvelous dialog!
      P.S. Is it a typo in "Language points": elbişe?
      Mar 14, 2014
      Merhaba! Two questions:

      First, I am wondering about this sentence in the dialogue: "Ama arka masada içkiyi fazla içenler vardı." How can I tell that "fazla" goes with "içkiyi" and not "içenler"? I guess my first clue should have been that I usually think of "fazla" as meaning "too much" or "too many," and it wouldn't make sense here to say "too many drinkers." But if you translate it as "a lot," as the dialogue does, why does it not go before rather than after "içkiyi"?

      Second, I am wondering about this sentence in the language points: "Orada çalışanlara gördük." Why is it not "çalışanları"?

      Hope these are not dumb questions.

      Mar 30, 2014
      Your questions are never stupid, Martha :)

      For the first one, "fazla" *does* got with içenler! So your intuition is correct, but your translation is just slightly off. Since "içenler" is derived from the verb "içmek," we can still see it modified like a typical verb.

      içmek = to drink
      fazla içmek = to drink a lot
      fazla içenler = those that drink a lot
      içkiyi fazla içenler = those that drink a lot of alcohol

      As for "fazla" - I hear you. It used to be a source of frustration for me, as well. Turkish doesn't really have the same strong distinction between "too much" and "a lot" like we do in English, but I have found that Turks generally go with "çok fazla" when they wish to express "too much."
      Mar 31, 2014
      Ah, I see how "fazla" works in this sentence now, Justin. Thank you!
      Apr 01, 2014
      Martha, no one answered your question about çalışanları, but I think you are correct. :) (I'm just learning too, though, so you may want a more expert opinion :) )
      Aug 14, 2015
      One question. IF someone is studying a beginning lesson, the person reading the conversation needs to recognize this and adjust his/her speed. I'm not saying that you have to speak super slow or make your utterances non native speaker like, but the speed here is way too fast. Thanks a lot. :)
      Aug 14, 2015
      Great podcasts. I'd like to subscribe but a bit worried about the fact that the last comment from you here was from 3 years ago.
      Jul 26, 2018
      Merhaba Justin.

      Söylemek istediğim bir şeyi var, 'Practice Language Point' uygulamada 'The child who doesn't swim' 'Yüzemeyen çocuk' olarak çevrildi, fakat doğrusu 'Yüzmeyen çocuk' diye düşünüyorum.

      Sağol ve iyi çalışmalar!
      Sep 25, 2020
      It would have been great if there were written dubs for the movie excerpt "Troy"
      Nov 22, 2020
      Anonymous Commenter

      To leave a comment or ask a question, login or signup.